MATERNAL ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION IN RATS INDUCES AN IRREVERSIBLE DISTURBANCES IN OFFSPRING BRAIN CORTEX

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Zimatkin SM, Bon EI
Grodno State Medical University, Grodno, Belarus
Alcohol consumption during pregnancy induces the development of specific disorders in offspring that are combined under the term Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, which is a part of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. The most prominent disturbance in FAS were found in brain (structural, functional, behavioral). The aim of the paper was to estimate microscopically the consequences of prenatal alcohol exposefor the brain cortex development in rats’ offspring. In the present study rats received a 15% solution of ethanol as a single source of drinking throughout a whole pregnancy (4.64±2.2 g/kg/day) or equivolume amount of water. The brains of the offspring of the alcohol and control groups were harvested on the 2, 5, 10, 20, 45 and 90 days after birth and for the further histology, histochemistry, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy accompanied by morphometry to examine the brain frontal cortex 5th layer neurons. It was found that antenatal alcohol exposure decrease the amount of neurons and increase in the number of their pathological forms, starting from the 20th postnatal day it induces the neurons shrinkage and cessation of their normal growth, a disturbances in neurons maturation and synaptogenesis, reduction in the activity of key oxidative enzymes and the number of mitochondria per um2 of cytoplasm and the total length of their cristae, increase the free, but reduce the bind ribosomes number and rough endoplasmic reticulum canal length, expansion of the Golgi apparatus cisternae, increase of the lysosome number and size accompanied by activation of acid phosphatase in cytoplasm. In conclusion, alcohol consumption during pregnancy in rats induces various deep and irreversible disturbances in postnatal development of a cerebral cortex neurons in offspring.

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